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We hope you will enjoy reading the articles and information on Salvation Army history and
heritage that will be published here over the coming months.

Thursday, 13 October 2011

The Eastbourne Riots

An Historic Victory For The Salvation Army

Trouble for The Salvation Army in Eastbourne was foreshadowed by town mayor elect, William Epps Morrison who declared that the council should do everything possible to put down The Salvation Army which was opposed altogether to the spirit of true religion. He even added that the council must resort to the support of the Skeleton Army to bring about the suppression of the Army.
 Furthermore, the mayor actually went as far as asking the home secretary for permission to leave the Salvationists to the fury of the mob. Permission was very properly denied. The Salvation Army opened fire in Eastbourne on 9th January 1890. Conflict with the town council was not long in coming. On September 8th Captain Emily Goss, together with other Salvationists, appeared before the magistrates charged with singing in the street.

The first attempt by the council to attack the Army ended in defeat when the case was dismissed. The Bandmaster of the Household Troops Band, Staff Captain Appleby, was charged on 24th August with being associated with a procession and a band of music. He was not brought before the court until October when he was found guilty and fined £1 on each count with 15/- costs, or seven days imprisonment. By May 1891 a corps band had been formed and the mayor was informed and a compromise suggested. The band would agree to play on Sundays in procession only in certain streets. On 11th May the council passed a resolution uncompromisingly rejecting the proposal. The conflict continued to escalate and in June 1891 local magistrates fined Captain Bob Bell and four soldiers £5 or a month in prison. They chose to serve the prison sentence. Just one week later thirty Salvationists appeared in court. As they all refused to agree to abide by the draconian regulations being enforced on them, the maximum penalty was imposed and they were jailed.

Commissioner Eva Booth visited Eastbourne from 25th to 28th June and conducted three meetings on the Sunday. In an effort to bring about a peaceful settlement to the conflict, she visited the mayor and councillor chambers. Her efforts sadly failed and every effort at compromise was soundly rejected.

 Upon his release from jail, Captain Bell and his comrades were welcomed by some 2000 Salvationists from London and the south of England. They marched through the town led by Commandant H. H. Booth, Commissioner Eva Booth and Commissioner Howard. The day ended with the Salvationists being attacked by a large violent mob.

From that day on a steady stream of Salvationists flowed to and from Lewes prison. The ill treatment of the Salvationists by the 'Skeleton Army' continued to escalate. Incited by the mayor, the mob, often numbering over 7000, were only to willing to attack at every available opportunity. The Sunday following Captain Bell's release from jail, nine bandsmen from Camberwell, London, visited Eastbourne in support of their comrades.

On the order of the mayor they were soon arrested and were committed for trial by local magistrates charged with conspiracy and unlawful assembly. Appearing at the Sussex Assizes at Lewes on 8th August, they were defended by Mr. H. H. Asquith, Q.C., M.P., who was later to become Prime Minister. The case was sent to the Central Criminal Court for trial on 2nd December where he jury found the bandsmen guilty of the charge of unlawful assembly. The judge, Mr. Justice Hawkins, refused to accept the verdict, stating that walking carrying musical instruments could in no way be considered unlawful. December 4th saw a proclamation posted in Eastbourne signed by the mayor and town clerk in another attempt to quell the Army's activities. It was withdrawn when local Methodists announced that they too would contest the contents of the proclamation to the bitter end. Despite this, both the Skeleton Army and indeed the police continued to hand out brutal treatment to the local Salvationists.

Reviewing the case of the Camberwell Bandsmen on January 27th 1892, the High Court of the Queen's Bench Division, all five judges decided that there was no evidence on which a reasonable jury could have acted in finding the defendants guilty of an unlawful assembly. They also pointed out that any violent action by the mob was not only unwarranted, but was itself punishable.

On March 10th 1892 Parliament voted by 269 votes to 122 to repeal the clause in the law that had in a large part been responsible for the riots not only in Eastbourne but in a number of other towns and cities. It was not until 1st September that the Repeal Bill became law, and rightly the Salvationists claimed a great victory. At Eastbourne Corps, by the end of November, a period of 5 months, there had been 80 seekers, 35 recruits and 28 new soldiers had been enrolled.

The council tried to introduce by-laws to prevent the Salvation Army from holding open air meetings and processions in the town. Thankfully the Home Secretary refused to approve them. At not a little cost, particularly to the Eastbourne Salvationists, The Army had won the right to proclaim the Word Of God on the streets.

“Post Office Missed” Private Presentation Packs by David Miller

I have always wondered about the Salvation Army Private Presentation Pack, pictured above, so I decided to dig around and see what I could find out.

They were produced for commemorative and definitive issues when Royal Mail did not produce an official presentation pack. They seem to fetch quite a high price on Ebay, and are sold by dealers at around the £12.50 mark. Not a bad price for a set that costs but a few pence!

It may be reasonable to assume that, in the case of the Salvation Army issue, these were issued along with the stamps in 1965, but this is most definitely not the case. None of the 16 different packs that were produced were released at the same time as the stamps. A full list of these “private” packs is below. The set of 16 is available on the internet at the incredible price of £95.00!

1937 Coronation
1951 Festival of Britain 
1965 Salvation Army
1965 Arts
1965 Lister 
1965 United Nations 
1965 ITU
1966 Landscapes
1966 Football World Cup - England Winners 
1967 Chichester 
1967 Christmas 
1969 Ghandi 
1975 Charity
1976 10p Booklet Pane (January)
1976 10p Booklet Pane (March)
1977 Silver Jubilee 9p Value

My research shows that all these presentation packs were produced in the late 1970’s in issues of 2,000 for each stamp issue by a company in Eastbourne. A nice little earner indeed given that a total of 32,000 packs were produced!

As most of you will know, I wholeheartedly disapprove of this sort of thing. All that has been done is to greatly increase the “value” of the stamps by the addition of a piece of printed card!!!!! Is this a fake? If sold honestly with full information then no, but most of these that I have seen for sale make no mention of the fact that they were produced up to 40 years after the issue of the stamps.

Fred Collins Salvation Army FDC by David Miller

Well known cachet artist Fred Collins produced a superb hand painted FDC showing a Salvation Army collecting kettle for the USA Caring & Sharing issue of October 7th. 1998, Collins number R2901.

Collins has a unique numbering system for his covers. His first cover the Quilt Making cover was number A101 with a second variety numbered A102. His second issue the Statue of Liberty was numbered B101, B102, and B103. Generally the covers with the 02 03 numbers were made in small qualities and have a higher retail price. The exception to this is when there are several stamps in an issue. For example the Greeting from American series is numbered L3501 – L3550. Also about twice a year he has a subscriber only cover. His first “year” numbering ending with Z101, with the “second” year numbering starting at A201.

Collins Hand Painted FDCs have been produced since 1978 and their reputation for superb quality has continued to grow. Each and every Collins cachet is individually hand painted in beautiful watercolors. Brush stroke after careful brush stroke brings each cover to life, and they truly are miniature works of art. His first cachet was the American Quilt making issue (1748-51) issued in March 1978 and he is still producing First Day Covers.

Fred Collins is a co-founder and charter member of the National Cachetmakers Association, a life member of the American First Day Cover Society, a member of the American Philatelic Society, a member of the National Stamp Dealers Association, an elected member of Earl Planty's First Day Cover Hall of Fame,and an honorary lifetime member of the Molly Pitcher Stamp Club of New Jersey.  Fred Collins was awarded the Cachetmaker of the Half-Century (1951-2000) as voted by the membership of the American First Day Cover Society.

Advantages of a Vegetarian Diet - Bramwell Booth

This article originally appeared in The Herald of the Golden Age many years ago and is being reprinted now to bring to mind again the great importance attached by the writer to the vegetarian way of living. His views were also shared by his illustrious father, General William Booth, the founder of the worldwide Salvation Army which has done, and continues to do, such noble work among the poor.

Unfortunately, as in the case of lohn Wesley, this aspect of their teaching has been largely lost in later developments, though not entirely, for recent experiments made in Salvation Army Homes, although not purely vegetarian in nature, have established the important fact that diet does affect the moral character, surely a most important contribution to modern knowledge in view of the present increases in juvenile delinquency.

Even at the time when this article was written the Salvation Army, chiefly due to the initiative of Mrs. Bramwell Booth, had established the fact that drunkenness and flesh-eating were related and that the quickest way to cure drunkenness was to put the " patient " on to a non-flesh diet: another significant fact which, to our knowledge, has not been sufficiently appreciated by would-be temperance reformers.

We are indebted to Miss Catherine Bramwell Booth, the daughter of the writer, for slight alterations to the original text which are shown in square brackets. It will be appreciated that some of the statements occurring, as for instance in paragraph 6, while being undoubtedly true at the time of writing, may no longer apply and that some of the views expressed on dietary need to be reconsidered in the light of the fuller scientific knowledge of dietetics now available.—Editor for The London Vegetarian Society, 81 Lamb’s Conduit Street, London. W.C.1.


I have been frequently asked to write something on this subject. In fact, on one occasion, I received from no less than forty Local Officers of the Salvation Army a request that I would explain to them all I meant by what I had called, when speaking in one of the [Conferences], the Gospel of Porridge. I do not think I shall be able to do all that, but I will try and briefly reply to one question which I often hear: " Why do you recommend Vegetarianism?"

Here are, at any rate, some of my reasons for doing so:

1. Because I have myself tried a vegetarian diet with the greatest benefit, having been for more than ten years at one time a strict vegetarian.

2. Because, according to the Bible, God originally intended the food of man to be vegetarian. "God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed : to you it shall be for meat."—Gen. i, 29.

3. Because a vegetarian diet is favourable to purity, to chastity, and to perfect control of the appetites and passions, which are often a source of great temptation, especially to the young.

4. Because a vegetarian diet is favourable to robust health and strength. With very few exceptions, and those only confirmed invalids, I believe the people would be better in spirits, stronger in muscle, and more vigorous in energy if they abstained entirely from the use of animal food. The Spartans, who stand first among all the nations of history for power to endure hardship, were vegetarians, so also were the armies of Rome, when Rome was conquering the world.

5. Because tens of thousands of our poor people, -who have now the greatest difficulty to make ends meet after buying flesh food, would, by the substitution of fruit and cheese, vegetables and other economical food, be able to get along in comfort, and have more money to spare for the poor and for the work of God.

6. Because a vegetarian diet of wheat, oatmeal and other grains, lentils, peas, beans, nuts and similar food is more than ten times as economical as a flesh diet. Meat contains half its weight in water which has to be paid for as though it were meat! A vegetarian diet, even if we allow cheese, butter and milk, will only cost about a quarter as much as a mixed diet of flesh and vegetables.

7. Because a vegetarian diet would stop the enormous waste of all kinds of animal food which is now consumed with scarcely any advantage to those who take it.

8. Because a vegetarian diet is a great protection against our drinking, and because the growth of meat eating among the people is one cause of the increase of drunkenness. One bad appetite creates another.

9. Because a vegetarian diet is favourable to industry and hard work, and because a flesh diet, on the other hand, favours indolence, sleepiness, growing fat, want of energy, indigestion, constipation, and other like miseries and degradations.

10. Because it is proved that life, health and happiness are all favoured by a vegetarian diet. I have known many examples of this myself. Most of the instances of great age are to be found among those who from their youth have lived principally, if not entirely, on vegetables and fruit. All this is worth thinking about.

11. I favour a vegetarian diet because the digestive organs of man are not well adapted for the use of flesh. Flesh meat contains a great deal of matter which, at the time the animal was killed, was being changed and prepared for being expelled from its system. This matter often passes through the human stomach undigested into the blood and causes various diseases, especially rheumatism, gout, indigestion and the like.

12. Because it is very difficult, especially in hot weather and in warm climates, to keep flesh food sweet long enough to cook and eat it, and a great deal of meat is, therefore, eaten after it has begun to decay—that is, to rot. This decay often begins long before the meat gives any sign of its real condition. Neither its appearance nor its smell is a safe guide as to its being wholesome.

13. Because a great deal of the flesh meat which is supplied for human food is already diseased, and because it is nearly impossible to be sure that any flesh is quite free from the germs of disease. Much common meat, which is often that of old animals, is well known to be sold to the butchers because the animals are sick, or unhealthy. And the best meat is nearly always the flesh of young animals which are fattened and killed before the germs of many diseases have had time to develop so as to show themselves. So that many animals are killed, which though believed to be healthy, are really diseased. This is especially the case with calves for veal, young bullocks for beef, and with lambs and young pigs.

14. Because I believe that the great increase in consumption and cancer during the last hundred years has been caused by the great increase in the use of animal food, and that a strict vegetarian diet would greatly help to ward off these most terrible and incurable diseases.

15. Because I believe that a flesh diet brings on many very painful diseases, which though not perhaps immediately dangerous to life, cause much suffering and loss. I mean such complaints as eczema, constipation, piles, worms, dysentery, severe headaches and the like. A vegetarian diet would do much to relieve if not cure them.

16. Because of the awful cruelty and terror to which tens of thousands of animals killed for human food are subjected in travelling long distances by ship and rail and road to the slaughter houses of the world. God disapproves of all cruelty—whether to man or beast.

17. Because of the terrible cruelties practised in killing animals in many slaughter houses. The whole business of killing is cruel, even when it is done with care, and we know that in the case of millions of creatures it is done with very little care. Ten thousand pigs are killed for food every hour in Europe alone.

18. Because the occupation of slaughtering animals is brutalising to those who are required to do the work. "The highest sentiments of humane men," says a certain writer, and I agree with him, " revolt at the cruelty, the degrading sights, the distressing cries, the perpetual bloodshed, and all the attendant horrors which must surround the transit and slaughter of suffering creatures."

19. Because a flesh diet is not necessary to hard work. A great part of the work of the world is done by animals which subsist on vegetable food, namely, horses, mules, camels, oxen, etc.

I believe this matter is well worthy of the serious consideration of [Christian Leaders]. It has an important bearing not only upon their own health and happiness, but upon their influence among the people, as men and women who are free from the bondage of that selfish gratification which too often afflicts the professed servants of Christ. Let us remember the Apostle's direction: "Whether ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God."

Think on these things!


(a) To advocate, extend and organise vegetarianism by the work of its Members and Associates and by the co-operation of its affiliated societies.

(b) To disseminate information on the physical, mental, moral and spiritual advantages of the vegetarian diet, and other matters connected therewith, by lectures, debates, cookery demonstrations, exhibitions of foods, publications, letters in the Press, and by other means.

(c) To promote the formation of local Groups of its Members and to encourage and assist Vegetarian Societies in Great Britain and elsewhere.

(d) To promote fraternal intercourse between vegetarians throughout the world.

(e) To establish and conduct a periodical magazine for the furtherance of vegetarianism, such magazine to be the official organ of the Society.

(Editor’s note: the above pamphlet was recently purchased and has two handstamps on it. The first, in green, says ‘The General’s Office. 23 December 1955’. The second, in red, states ‘The Salvation Army Press & Publicity Office’. It sheds an interesting light on the Booth family’s view of diet).

Salvation Army Stamp from United 8tates of America 1965

Developing the Design

The Army submitted a suggested design by Gene Murray of New York who had created its centenial medal. It featured the Familiar shield emblem with profile portraits of a man and woman in Salvation Army uniform and the legend "A Century of Service to Man."

This was not seriously considered by the committee, which asked Louis S. Glanzman to develop a suitable design. When Glanzman's finished art work, which pictured a Salvation Army street corner band, was taken up at the April 1, 1965 meeting of the Stamp Advisory Committee it was rejected as too closely identified with the Army's religious work. All other designs discussed proved equally unacceptable.

Louis S. Glanzman's rejected design

With the anniversary date and proposed date of issue only two and a half months away, it was essential to get a design immediately. The simplest way was to avoid the religious issue was to have no vignette at all, and this course was adopted. Sam Marsh, a New York artist specializing in lettering, was asked to do a poster-type all-lettering design.

Marsh submitted horizontal and vertical designs using only the dates 1865-1965, the name "Salvation Army" and the inscription "One hundred years of service". The vertical was approved.

The Post Office Department authorized the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to prepare a model on April 15, just 15 days after Marsh had been called in, and the model by Robert J. Jones was approved by Postmaster General John A. Gronouski five days later, on April 20.

Announcement of the design was made in a news release for papers of Sunday May 23. The announcement noted that the stamp marked a departure in design of U.S. Stamps, since the starkly simple design was devoid of portraits, symbols or embellishment. It gave this description.

"It is a vertical stamp in red, blue and black on white paper. In a top panel of red appears "1865-1965" in white. The centre panel is white, dominated by "Salvation Army" in Black. The lettering is modified condensed Karnak. Underneath in red is "One Hundred Years of Service".

The bottom panel of blue contains, in white, "United States 5c", with the denomination centred between the two words."

Stamp Production

Since the design was entirely lettering, the entire master die was engraved by George A. Payne, one of the Bureau's letter engravers. Postmaster General Gronouski approved the die proof on May 4 and the order to print was given the following day.

Printing on a two-plate Gioripress was completed July 1 with 765,965 sheets of 200 or 153,193,000 stamps.

The printing breakdown by plates was:

Plates Impressions Stamps
28113 122,423 24,484,600
28114 122.423 24,484,600
28117 138,175 27,635,000
28118 138,177 27,635,400
28122 122,384 24,476,800
28123 122,383 24,476,600

The Bureau made its initial shipment of 1.500.000 stamps to New York City on June 14. By June 15, 1965 a total of 125,355,000 had been distributed to post offices and the Philatelic Sales Agency.

A post office station was set up in the ballroom lobby on the Hilton's fourth floor for the benefit of the guests and stamps were on sale at offices throughout New York City, with most first day activity centered at the New York City Post Office.
Both hand and machine cancellations were in the new style with no periods in the two-letter state abbreviation, but did not carry a Zip code since there are more than 60 in the area served by the New York Post Office.

Rejected design by Sam Marsh
Philatelic Data

Five cent red, blue and black on white wove paper in pregummed sheets, vertical format, .084 by 1.44 inches, printed from 200 subject sheets on the two-plate Giori presses, perforated 11 on the L-perforator and divided into panes of 50 for post offices.

Mr. Zip, the walking design first used with the Sam Houston stamp, appears in red in the selvage four times on each sheet of 200 and once on each post office pane of 50. It is in the upper or lower margin at the upper right of the upper left pane, the upper left of the upper right pane, the lower right of the lower left pane and the lower left of the lower right pane.

The plate number also appears in red on each pane in the side selvage at the top of upper panes and the bottom of lower panes.

First Day Ceremonies

First day ceremonies for the Salvation Army stamp on July 2, originally planned for the steps of the New York City Post Office, actually were held at a luncheon in the Mercury Ballroom of the New York Hilton Hotel.

There was typical Salvation Army music by the Army's Metropolitan Unified Command Ensemble, an invocation, introductions of guests and a talk by Assistant Postmaster General William M. McMillan, New York Mayor Robert F. Wagner, whose name appeared on the program, was out of the country and was represented by City Council President Paul Screvane.

Tuesday, 4 October 2011

Fred, a Red Cross, Ambulances and a Euphonium by Jon Bolton

Fred Ireson, my maternal great grandfather, Bandmaster of the Wellingborough Salvation Army, drove a Salvation Army ambulance during WW1 and was a member of the Salvation Army Motor Ambulance Band. For his War services, he was presented with an inscribed euphonium by General Bramwell Booth. He marooned his ambulance on a beach in France and was nearly swamped by a rising tide. These few facts and anecdote were the only verbal information regarding his war service that I learnt during family history enquiries amongst my family.

The British Red Cross and the Order of St John made separate appeals for funds at the outbreak of war on 4th August 1914. It was the duty of Government to remove and treat the sick and wounded from the battlefield and return them to service or civil life. However, in a Great War, the Army Medical Services did not have the resources, so any efficient, voluntary assistance offered was welcomed and a necessity. The Army Council commended the appeals to the public equally and encouraged the creation on 20th October 1914 of the Joint War Committee (JWC) to pool the resources of these two organisations and work under the protected emblem of the Red Cross. The JWC organised members into Voluntary Aid Detachments (VAD) and provided the operational structure across Britain and the various theatres of War. All members (VADs) were trained in first aid and the particular skills required for their placements in hospitals, convalescent homes, medical depots, work parties, ambulance units and other sections. At the Armistice in 1918 there were 125,993 VADs, of which 35,342 (28%) were men.

On 12th September, 1914 the first Red Cross ambulances, volunteers from the Royal Automobile Club, were sent to France. Considering at the start of the War, medical transport was all horse-drawn, they were an immediate success and resulted in the creation of the Motor Ambulance Department (MAD), later of the JWC. An appeal was launched on 2nd October, 1914, with the support of the Times, for funds to provide Motor Ambulances, with an estimate of £400 to purchase a chassis and fit the body, and £250 for six month’s upkeep. In three weeks, funds were raised for 512 ambulances.

Many organisations donated or lent vehicles. Each vehicle was examined for suitability and condition at the Royal Automobile Club garage. Owners were expected to make any necessary repairs and only those passed were accepted. For example, it was necessary for the vehicle to have a minimum wheel base of 10 foot 6 inches to support the body. All owners had to agree to accept loss of their vehicle or damage. In fact, many were wrecked or totally worn out during the War. Most donors actually agreed to their surviving vehicles to be sold to the Society’s benefit at the end of the War.

Drivers were voluntary or paid, with the same contracts (right) and underwent the same medical examination and driving test. Voluntary drivers supplied their own uniforms and were provided with superior billeting. All vehicles were dispatched from the JWC office at 83 Pall Mall, London, where the contents and equipment were checked by an official and responsibility transferred to the driver.

By 19th September, 1914, 9 cars had left for France, up to 25 the next week with increasing average weekly numbers to January 1915. By then, 466 4-stretcher and 178 2-stretcher motor ambulances out of a total of 830 vehicles had been dispatched via Folkestone or Southampton.

Early in the War, in one month, 89 different makes of vehicle were accepted which caused problems in maintaining spares. Gradually vehicles were standardised. This was particularly necessary for the Motor Ambulance Convoys made up of 15-20 ambulances and other vehicles. The types of vehicle were eventually reduced to 16 – Argyll, Belsize, Buick, Crossley, Daimler, Darracq, Dennis, Ford, G.M.C., Mors, Napier, Siddeley Deasy, Wolseley, Talbot, Vauxhall and Vulcan. Ten to fifteen tons of spares were dispatched weekly.

During the course of the War, the MAD dispatched 2,171 motor ambulances of 3,446 vehicles to various theatres of war, 1,484 to France. 983 vehicles were loaned, 520 gifts and 1,943 purchased. In France, 7,250,286 sick and wounded cases (ie the same man often several times) were carried by the MAD. Each ambulance carried an average of 3,939 cases and 2,500 drivers, male and female, served during the War.
The Motor Ambulance Department organised it
s Motor Ambulances into the Chain of Evacuation, liaising with the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) and the Army Services Corps (ASC). Near the front line, Regimental Aid Posts patched up the wounded and returned them to the line or sent them back, walking or carried by relays of RAMC stretcher-bearers, to Advance Dressing Stations (ADS), through miles of landscape impassable by horse or motor transport. From here, those who could not be returned to the line were transported to Main Dressing Stations (MDS) and then to Casualty Clearing Stations (CCS), usually 20km behind the front line. Transport between the ADS and the MDS and sometimes on to the CCS was provided by RAMC Field Ambulances, mobile organisations, part bearer, part hospital attached to the Medical Transport of a Division. ASC Motor Ambulance Convoys, manned by ASC drivers and RAMC attendants, under the orders of the Director of Medical Services of the Army, were attached to the CCSs and the main means of evacuation from the MDS. Casualties were then cleared by Field Ambulances or Hospital Trains to hospitals in the Base Areas such as Boulogne, Etaples, Paris, Rouen and Havre, and from there by Hospital Ship to England.

Initial military opposition on the basis of obstructing Lines of Communication was soon replaced by the necessity for quick movement of the sick and wounded and working arrangements with the Red Cross were formalised by the Army Medical Service on 18th October, 1914. At this point there were 120 Ambulances and a few other vehicles: 50 ambulances with supporting vehicles were operating as No.2 Motor Ambulance Convoy at the front; 25 ambulances were based in Boulogne for evacuation of the wounded arriving from the battlefields of Ypres; other units were operating elsewhere; and No.4 Motor Ambulance Convoy was forming at Boulogne, operational by the end of October and served the Ypres front from Bailleul.

The Motor Ambulance Convoys were commanded by RAMC officers, whilst running repairs, supplies, parts, petrol, billeting and rationing were the responsibility of the ASC; major repairs were to be conducted by the BRCS at Boulogne or other Base. By October 1915, the questions of leave, discipline and punishment relating to volunteers, led to all members of the two Convoys becoming enlisted men only, those refusing to do so being withdrawn. In the autumn of 1915, 2 further Convoys were provided and each car was labelled with the name of the organisation that had provided it – hence the labels on the Salvation Army Motor Ambulances seen later in this article. There were eventually 7 JWC Motor Ambulance Convoys – 2, 4, 6, 16, 24, 27 & 42 MAC with 350 ambulances at the Front. Although Red Cross personnel had been withdrawn and control was vested in the Military Authorities, the Officers maintained close relations with the Red Cross Headquarters in Boulogne, including providing returns of their operations.

On the Lines of Communication, Red Cross Motor Ambulances were operational from early October 1914 and remained in the control of the Red Cross. The Red Cross and then the JWC were given responsibility for all the ambulance work from Deauville in the west to Dunkirk in the east; and hospitals were hurriedly prepared around Boulogne and along the coast in preparation for the expected casualties from Ypres. Orders for ambulances were conveyed to the Red Cross by the Embarkation Medical Officer who reported to the Deputy Director of Medical Services who had responsibility for the medical arrangements at each Base. At Boulogne, the RAMC provided spare parts, tyres, petrol, rations, accommodation and a garage, whilst running repairs was the responsibility of the BRCS; at other Bases and the Front, the RAMC conducted repairs and did not provide garages.

On 15th October, 1914, 17 Ambulances with drivers had arrived in Boulogne from Folkestone and were not sent on to Paris or Abbeville as previously due to the expected flow of casualties from Ypres. Six days later, trains loaded with wounded were arriving at Boulogne’s Gare Maritime. Hotels were still being converted into hospitals in Boulogne and surrounding areas and drivers and bearers helped remove furniture to make room. In one day 3,687 wounded were moved with 25 ambulances. The Motor Ambulances were garaged in an old building in the middle of town and the drivers billeted in hotels. However, a new Garage was established on the Quay Gambetta with repair workshops and the personnel billeted in some temporary buildings erected on the Quay to house a Fishery Exhibition. The Boulogne Red Cross garage became the focus of transport organisation, receiving and dispatching all vehicles and spares. Boulogne was the busiest Base in France, carrying 1,823,458 cases during the War. The standardisation of vehicles during the War meant the concentration of diverse, returned vehicles in Boulogne.

The Boulogne Convoy maintained a strength of 120 ambulances with a night and day driver for each vehicle. It was divided into seven Sections. Each Section had a Section Leader, Sub-Section Leader and a Corporal, two of whom were on day-duty and one on night-duty. The day-duty men paraded at 7:30am, the night-duty men at 7pm, when they were inspected by the Officer Commanding or the Adjutant. The day-duty men then proceeded to service their vehicles. The Officer Commanding or Adjutant inspected the vehicles daily and an Officer inspected the cars minutely day by day.

Due to continual enemy aircraft bombing and the exposure of the Quay, a duplicate emergency Garage was established at Trouville. During 1917 and 1918 when air raids were almost nightly, the Convoys of Ambulances were separated for their own safety and to deal with casualties more expeditiously. They could respond with a few minutes notice “frequently whilst bombs were dropping and shrapnel falling.”

On 9th December, 1918 B Section of the Boulogne Convoys was taken over by V.A.D. women drivers so that the men could go to Brussels to assist in the movement of returning British prisoners. Women took over the remaining work of the Boulogne Convoy and it was finally dissolved on 30th April, 1919. Shipments of demobilised vehicles began in December 1918 and were complete by August 1919.

The headings on the Medal entitlement letter and the Salvation Army contribution were thereby put into context. As I discovered from the Red Cross Indexes of Personnel, Fred Ireson was engaged as a driver for the Red Cross Motor Ambulance Department from 3rd Jan 1918 to 28thJan 1919. His previous engagement through the JWC was with the S.A. ie Salvation Army, based in Boulogne but with an unknown arrival date. According to Vic Elstow, historian of the Wellingborough Salvation Army, Frank Ireson, Salvation Army Band, Fred’s nephew, recalled “at carolling at the Workhouse (1915)….Bandmaster Fred Ireson was due to go to France with the Salvation Army Ambulance Teams immediately after Christmas…” (13) As described, there were 7 Sections in the Boulogne Convoy and “One of these was distinguished as the Salvation Army section, and was manned entirely by personnel, who were members of that Organisation, which, in addition to providing drivers, also subscribed towards the maintenance of the Ambulances and erected Recreation Huts for the drivers.” So how and what did the Salvation Army contribute through the Motor Ambulance Department of the JWC to the Boulogne Convoy?

The Salvation Army organisation took a position of neutrality towards the War. As Bramwell Booth stressed in his Xmas 1915 address, “Every land is my fatherland, for all lands are my Father’s”. After all, he was General to Salvationists on both sides; politics were irrelevant, only the well-being of all people. Despite criticism from Pacifists and disapproval by the Red Cross and War Office of their religious emphasis and tolerance of the enemy, Miss Mary Murray, who had organised tea huts and rest places for soldiers in the Boer War, was asked to head up the Salvation Army mission to assist the Army in WW1. Whilst many Salvationists joined the Services, many others became VADs, military chaplains and most famously the American Salvationist “Doughnut Girls”.

On December 1st, 1914 the Salvation Army presented 5 ambulances to the nation after a procession with bands from Thames Embankment to The Guildhall. The Lord Mayor, Alderman Sir Charles Johnston, presided in state. There were speeches by the General, General Mrs Booth, Brigadier Mary Murray and Captain Bramwell Taylor representing the 9 Salvationists who would man the cars as drivers and attendants. The General expressed how the money had been raised by small gifts from often the very poor and how the cars would convey Salvation principles of love, service and sacrifice; imbued with patriotism and an ambition to be of service to the wounded of any nationality. “These motors would work right up from the firing-line, and therefore the fine band of young men who had volunteered for this work knew that they would frequently be in danger themselves” (Brigadier Murray) (5) "Salvationists are a poor people. Their only riches consist in love and power to serve. Nevertheless, out of their scant means they contributed between three and four thousand pounds to the Prince of Wales Relief Fund, and also raised a further £2500 for the purchase and equipment of a Motor Ambulance Unit consisting of five cars. The unit is manned by Salvationists. It is no new thing to send ambulance brigades to the front at war time, but it is a new thing to see that they are all conducted by Christian men. The cars have splendidly stood the severe tests imposed upon them, and the men in charge have borne themselves so well that they have become known as 'The White Brigade.' No drinking, no smoking, no swearing amongst them; always on time and carrying out the orders of the medical staff with the utmost satisfaction, it is not to be wondered at that our officer in command of the unit was promoted to the charge of a section—with the management of twenty-five cars.” (Brigadier Carpenter) The nine Salvationists were named in the article above, so Fred Ireson must have gone to France after January 1915.

On 17th February 1915 “Queen Alexandra inspected at Marlborough House the six motor ambulances and motor lorry which the Salvation Army has presented to the nation. Her Majesty gave permission for the group of cars to be called “The Queen Alexandra Unit””. Gradually more were added until there were 30 ambulances and a complete section of drivers. They accommodated 4 stretchers or 8 sitting.

An eyewitness report by Sir F Treves on the work of the Red Cross ambulances in Boulogne (of which the Salvation Army unit was a part) was published in the Grey River Argus Newspaper in New Zealand, 24th December 1915: “The fleet of motor ambulances provided by the British Red Cross Society represents, in my opinion, the most valuable service ever rendered to the Army Medical Department in the form of (sic) voluntary aid. These ambulances are everywhere. The majority are working at the front in convoys of various sizes. They are perfectly organised and equipped, and are always at work. When they come down with patients they return with stores for the wounded. In the saving of life, in the lessening of suffering, and in the securing of prompt surgical treatment for the wounds these ambulances have done a good work the value of which can hardly be exaggerated. In Boulogne a number of our ambulances stand ready night and day for whatever transport may be required. Almost before the ambulance train from the front has pulled up at the platform our orderlies are at work. I saw a full train discharged, and can only say that I have never seen a convoy evacuated with such rapidity and precision. The wounded, who are taken off at once to the wards or to the hospital ship, fully appreciate the value of this speed transport, which is a revelation to those who have only seen horse or hand carriage in the removal of the sick.

On 28th March 1915 the New York Times carried a report from the London Morning Post by “St Q” a Red Cross ambulance driver based in Boulogne. When he first arrived in Boulogne harbour he witnessed “a long, double row of motor ambulances, khaki and green, standing, 150 of them, under the old Exhibition buildings…they never see the inside of a garage unless they break down.” As discussed above, the Boulogne Convoy had moved to the Quay Gambetta and the personnel were billeted in the Fishery Exhibition building. He recounted how the Red Cross had appealed for ambulances and funds and received both: “At first, all sorts of cars were taken, with all kinds of drivers, and sometimes the car went to pieces and sometimes the driver and once or twice both at once.” After a while, only the best vehicles and proven drivers were accepted and so many were being offered, they could afford to be selective. He states there to be 150 motor ambulances in Boulogne and 450 in the rest of the British sector of France. The Army Service Corps took responsibility for tyres and fuel and testing the vehicles, marking those that passed with “RA + a number” (this can be seen in the 2 photos above). This also meant the introduction of military ways such as drilling, saluting, army rations and duty hours of 7am-6pm or 9am-11pm with the latter often extended indefinitely. “The work is not hard if the car is in good condition, but the continual waiting about is very wearying.” A driver needed to know his vehicle and be ready to drive any other. The work rate varied with operations at the front but one day 3000 casualties were moved by ambulances; he saw 2 large ships filled and the hospitals around Boulogne half-emptied in 12 hours. He recalled, “Sometimes on an open road, sometimes in the middle of a convoy moving at 3 miles an hour, once or twice with twelve or thirteen people “up”, crawling along that 300 yards of holes leading to the bridge at Boulogne, the worst bit of pave I have ever met, fearing every jolt would break a spring or produce a groan from one of the stretcher cases.”

No. 7 Hospital Boulogne mentioned by “St Q” was the Hotel Christol, the Headquarters of the Red Cross, and known as “Allied Forces Base Hospital”. It was one of 17 hospitals in and around Boulogne, 10 regular and 7 voluntary under military control. At the Hotel Christol, there was 145 Red Cross staff. All Red Cross VADs arriving in France and going on leave reported to the Hotel, most requiring a meal and a bed – “a sort of hotel, except that nobody pays”. (10) No. 7 Hospital was based at Boulogne 23rd October, 1914-11th January 1915 and then moved to Etaples from August 1915.

Boulogne was clearly a hub of activity for the Red Cross and its Salvation Army Ambulance Section. In late 1915, the Sectional Officer, Adjutant WR Dalziel (in above picture of the row of ambulances) conceived the idea of the Salvation Army Ambulance Band with eight available bandsmen from the drivers and orderlies. It commenced its service with the rendering of “Australia” from the No.2 Band Book. Within a year there were 19 instruments and it played all of the Army’s music. It was recognised by the Church of England Padre and played at the Sunday morning Church Parades, accompanying the hymns and playing after the march back from the service. The Band also played at Hospitals and Salvation Army huts when formal duties allowed. Adjutant Dalziel was followed as head of the Band and Section by Lieut-General Bramwell Taylor (Bandmaster in the Band photos above). He developed the Band in the later years of the War and conducted it on its great Campaign at the close of hostilities. Moreover, General Bramwell Booth invited them to accompany him, where duties allowed, to hut meetings at the front.

Under the Colours magazine in July 1918 reported “Even more striking is the record of the unit’s aggressive Salvation fighting. The need for music was quickly realized, and a few instruments were secured, and out of the small beginning has developed a Combination which has gained for itself an all-round reputation worthy of the best Army Bands…Hundreds of thousands of men coming from and returning to “Blighty” have been cheered and blessed by the strains of music and in some of the Meetings the penitent-form victories have numbered more than one hundred. Added to this has been the work of playing to the wounded in the hospitals.”

“The Salvation Army was responsible for the formation of an excellent Band, and the influence of its members had a marked effect on the general tone of the personnel attached to the Garage.” It was reported that the first attempt for a service for the personnel was suggested by a Jew, supported by a Roman Catholic, conducted by a Salvation Army Section Leader with a mainly Church of England congregation.

The Salvation Army Ambulance Band was to have 2 reunion weekends, 23-24 April 1932 and July 21st-22nd 1945.

Fred Ireson did not return home until 1919 after touring the country with the Ambulance Band.

Band photos show him back in Wellingborough by July. It was described as the “Great Campaign”. There were 2 concerts a day and Fred “proved a very popular Euphonium soloist, one of his star pieces being “The Village Blacksmith” (“True till Death”)”. Fred Ireson was presented with his euphonium by General Bramwell Booth at the close of the Tour, carrying an inscription. In the 1970s it was in use by the Wellingborough Junior Band. In a letter to The Musician, 5th October 1985, a Mr Bruce Hobbs of Wellingborough stated that he played the instrument until “a few years ago” when it was replaced by a new one: “It was always a thrill to play this euphonium, with its inscription, etched on the bell, and it always reminded one of the principles of those gone before.”

Fred was Bandmaster at Wellingborough from 1900 until he retired in 1938, although remaining a member of the Band into the 1950s. He died in 1962, aged 81.

1885: A Glimpse Into The Army’s First Year in Wakefield by Celia Parkinson

Saturday 28th March 1885

Premises owned by the Eastmoor Calvinistic Chapel Trustees was taken over and prepared for Salvation Army meetings which commenced under the direction of Staff-Captain Stonehill and two female officers (Captain Luke and Lieutenant Maclaurin). Reports stated that the building was overflowing and Major Elijah Cadman noted that the Corps would be looking for larger property in the centre of town.

Monday 8th June

At a meeting held in the Corn Exchange at the top of Westgate, the first flag to the Corps was presented. A Band played but many thought it was too loud and played too often.

Tuesday 7th July

As the Army were marching back to the Barracks at Eastmoor, following Open-air Meetings and on reaching the crowded Borough Market, an attempt was made to stop the procession. The Salvationists pushed their way through but were followed by a number of Irish youths. On reaching a point opposite Nicholson’s printing Works in Jacob’s Well Lane, a man carrying a wicket interceded on behalf of the Army. At once he was surrounded by roughs and assaulted in a brutal manner. Other cricketers, who were walking from the cricket field at the time, and seeing the trouble into which their friend had fallen ran to his assistance. Several of the Irishmen took off their belts and with the buckle ends, inflicted savage blows upon those within reach. A stalwart Salvationist who had been playing the drum, ran among the Irishmen in a courageous manner and with the knob end of the drumstick succeeded in routing the Irishmen.

Friday 5th September

140 Life Guards marched through Wakefield watched by a great crowd who had collected in the streets to witness the procession, headed by a brass band. A great roar was brought up by members of the Local Corps. The meeting in the Corn Exchange was a very large one. Commandant Herbert Booth conducted the meeting and after addressing the meeting reviewed some of the guards.

Late December/January

Great meetings but the drum is regarded by many tradesmen and residents as a great nuisance, especially as recently a horse was startled by the enthusiastic drummer and then knocked down a female.

(Editor’s note: Celia spent a year trawling records to produce a booklet giving details of the first twenty five years of Wakefield Corps. SAHPA will be publishing this in the Spring of 2012).

Salvation Army Postcards


I first began collecting postcards in 1986. It began very simply with the realisation that I needed a hobby, something apart from work that I could focus on and received pleasure from. And so I pondered what I might undertake as a hobby.

Realising that “collecting things” was probably the most favourite pastime, I then began to think about what I might collect. While I was thinking I came across a small accumulation of postcards that I gathered over a number of years including some old black and white cards in mint condition, which I had purchased more than 20 years earlier. So the decision was made.

My first big mistake was probably the most common, in that I failed to research the hobby before I embarked on it. Initially, my collection consisted mainly of modern postcard views. Then in 1989 when stationed in Sheffield I decided one bank holiday Monday to jump on a bus near to where I was living south of the city centre just to get out for a few hours. I forget now where I ended up, the bus was going away from Sheffield, into Derbyshire, but I stumbled across a postcard fair, and did a bit of browsing, and was fascinated by the vast array that was on offer. I didn’t buy anything that day, but I was beginning to get hooked. I visited a few more fairs and in the early days I bought just about anything that took my fancy.

A short time later, after I had moved to London, I saw an advert from Harry Hayes in Salvationist regarding Salvation Army postcards. I had a chat with him, and became aware of the Salvation Army Philatelic Circle and its regular postal auctions, and before long I was well and truly hooked! Harry, perhaps without knowing it , had a major influence in my decision to get involved. I will be eternally grateful to Harry.

Background to the postcard

The first plain postcards appeared in Austria in 1869, and one year later Britain followed. The first picture postcards appeared in the mid 1870’s on the continent but it was not until 1894 that they first appeared in Britain. The GPO was for many years reluctant to allow this novel form of sending messages. The rationale behind their reluctance is not clear.
In 1902 Britain became the first country to divide the back of the picture postcard to allow the address and a message to be written on the same side.

The period 1902-1914 has been termed the golden age of the picture postcard. This was a time when almost everybody sent postcards; it was the cheapest and most reliable form of communication.

Soon. almost every conceivable subject could be found on postcards, as can be seen from the copy of Picture Postcard Values on the table.

So in the very early years of the 20th century, picture postcard collecting became a national pastime.

Before 1914 most British picture postcards were printed in Germany, but the outbreak of hostilities put an end to that, and by the time the Armistice was signed in 1918, very few people were collecting postcards and very few were being produced, apart from local views and those of the seaside comic variety.

The hobby began a revival in the late 1950’s and gathered momentum throughout the 60’s, when collectors shops began to carry stocks of old post cards, which had been unearthed from a variety of sources. Today there are more than 500 dealers supported by the Postcard Traders Association, an estimated 20,000 collectors, and the magazine Picture Postcard Monthly has a circulation of around 7,500.

Salvation Army postcards represent one of three disciplines within my postcard collecting profile. What is clear to me is that in the early years of the 20th century, Salvationists at all levels were an enterprising people. The Salvation Army was quick to spot an opportunity which could be exploited, in the very best sense of that word.

It was the golden age of the picture postcard, large numbers of people were collecting them, and kept them in little albums. They could be produced cheaply, and in quantity, and distributed at prices that people could afford; and there was a profit to be made! A band wagon was rolling along, and our enterprising forbears would not allow it to pass them by and we are glad, because they have enabled us to preserve much of our movement’s heritage through the humble picture postcard.

And speaking of band-wagons, bands very quickly became a prominent feature of the Salvation Army postcard boom. A local photographer came to the hall to photograph the band, postcards were produced, and no doubt sold to raise money for the band funds.

Cards from the early years of the 20th century always seem to abound whenever I visit fairs, and many of these carry the date along with the caption, or perhaps with a clear postmark on the reverse.

Fighting For The Lord - Manningtree Corps No 395 Year One. Edited by Major Mike Farrow

Manningtree is a small 'town' in north Essex, and is the birth place of Matthew Hopkin; Oliver Cromwell's Witchfinder General, and is mentioned in William Shakespeare's Henry IV part one "That roasted Manningtree Ox with a pudding in his belly". It also claims to be the smallest town in Britain, and yet The Salvation Army came to this small place in the year 1883. Rose Woolard wrote in 'The Story Of My Life' — she may have been the first person to become an officer from Manningtree entering the work in 1886 — 'In the early part of the year 1883 our village and other villages around were aroused by seeing large placards announcing that on the following Saturday (24th February 1883) war was declared in the town of Manningtree, Essex, by a contingent of The Salvation Army, who would open fire in that part of the enemies dominion, to do battle with the foe and win his agents to God. The reader can hardly imagine what this announcement in our quiet village meant. Everybody found everybody else wondering, and asking who these Salvationists could be, and what they were like, etc. Some said, "Oh, they are a set of enthusiasts; a new kind of religious people made up of the lowest class, and not fit to listen!" All of which I believed, as thousands of others have done. When the day came for the opening of this new religious attack in the town of Manningtree, I kept as far away as possible. However there were many persons who went, and went over and over again'

The Essex Standard, West Suffolk Gazette, and Eastern Counties Advertiser 3rd. March 1883, carries this report from its local correspondent in Manningtree; The Salvation Army — General Booth having hired the Corn Exchange for twelve months, the campaign was opened on Saturday night by an auxiliary of Salvationists from Colchester and Harwich. During the week the town and neighbourhood was placarded with flaring posters announcing the coming of the Army to storm the citadel of sin on the night referred to, and about 7pm, the Army, headed by Major Blandy, Capt Ada Smith, Lieut Minnie Bass, &c, and seven musicians, formed into procession and marched down the main street singing hymns to the strains of popular tunes, and followed by hundreds of the rougher element of the town and adjoining villages, principally boys and girls who were highly pleased with novelty. As the procession was returning to the Exchange, Mr G. Bloom, installed for the nonce, town crier, appeared at the four crossings ringing a big bell and exclaiming, "I hereby give notice that we have two chapels and one Church, so that the services of the Salvation Army are not required" "God save the Queen" which called forth much laughter and cheering from the crowd. The Exchange was soon filled to overflowing, although a penny admission was expected. The performers having seated themselves on the platform one of the Army's characteristic services was held'

The War Cry 10th March 1883 gives a rather different account; THE GRAND OPENING OF MANNINGTREE by MAJOR BLANDY. What the people think of us — A publican Advertisers The Salvation Army by means of the Town-crier. "So The Salvation Army is coming to our quiet little town, is it, to drive the people mad? We shall have no peace now" "Amen! " I said, when I heard this, as group after group stood in different parts of the town, all earnestly discussing the reasons for our coming to this place. One said, "We don't want them" "But" said another, "they have done a lot of good at Colchester and Harwich and surely there is room for improvement here" "But WE HAVE PLENTY OF RELIGION now, and these people when they come into a place, I hear the folks say they can't help GIVING UP THE PLACE". One said, "We don't want them" "But" said another, "they have done a lot of good at Colchester and Harwich and surely there is room for improvement here" "But WE HAVE PLENTY OF RELIGION now, and these people when they come into a place, I hear the folks say they can't help GIVING UP THE BEER and "bacca" When I heard this I shouted "Hallelujah" A poor publican thought he could make all the people think as he thought; so he paid a town-crier to go round and cry "Oh, yes! Oh, yes! This is to give notice that we have two chapels and one church here, and WE DON'T WANT THE SALVATION ARMY in Manningtree!"

At the first meeting on Saturday night, when we came in after a splendid march with drum and brass band, there were ONLY THREE PEOPLE inside; and the devil laughed and said, "There you see no one will go" But we just commenced our work, confident in God, and a few came in; and before we closed the hall was half full, and God came down upon us. We sang, played, talked, and prayed until some laughed, and some cried, but all were satisfied that we were not what they had heard we were, and one after another said when going out, "These are HAPPY FOLKS; if this is what religion does it is worth having; " and Hallelujah! the news spread like wildfire.

So the people came out of their houses by hundreds to see us as we went marched through the streets the next day. In the morning the place was nearly full, and in the afternoon quite full. At night packed; hundreds could not get in. Thirteen at the feet of Jesus. On Monday night place packed again, and ten more seeking pardon of their sins. The Captain and Lieutenant are in good spirits, and the devil is in a rage"

The War Cry 10th March 1883 has this report from Captain Ada Smith; 'God is working in a most wonderful manner in this town. The devil is being defeated. Since the opening last Saturday week 120 have Professed to find Jesus as a sin-pardoning Saviour, some of them the worst characters in the town. Some men have come in to upset the meetings, and God's spirit has taken hold of them, and they have been the first to volunteer for Jesus. Yesterday they were sitting on the platform with bright happy faces testifying of what God had done for them.

God is convicting men and women of their sins all over the town. The other afternoon when visiting a young man came running up to us IN THE STREET, and said, "Oh, I can't find peace" and standing in the middle of the road, we pointed him to Jesus the peace-giver. At night he was rejoicing in God as his Saviour. We have taken hold of God to save the whole town, and trusting in Him we are confident of victory".

The War Cry 21st March 1883 from Captain Ada Smith; 'God has been giving us rich, wonderful blessings here since the opening. We have taken the names of 156 who have come to the penitent form and professed to have given themselves to Jesus, some of them the very worst characters in the town-men who have been swearers, drunkards, wife-beaters — in fact, everything that was bad; and it is beautiful to see them sitting on the platform looking so clean and happy. God is taking hold of the whole town. Scores of people who have not yielded are convicted of sin, and the railway men who have been brought to our meetings say that they are AFRAID TO SWEAR lest they go to hell.

Some of the converts walk miles to the meetings. Yesterday morning at Knee-drill we had about eighty. Some walked all through the snow for four miles to be there and back again for breakfast. God gives us souls too in visiting; the people are so ready to accept Jesus. They tell us no-one ever told them of the Saviour before. The penitents are so real. They just see their sins in all their blackness, and their cry is; "I am such a sinner, do you think He will save me?" The people are so ready to accept Jesus. They tell us no-one ever told them of the Saviour before. The penitents are so real. They just see their sins in all their blackness, and their cry is; "I am such a sinner, do you think He will save me?" We intend beginning the village work directly the weather breaks, but the roads have been quite blocked with snow. At first the Lieutenant and I will go in charge by turns; but we have some splendid fellows coming along who will make good Sergeants'.

It appears that the work grew rapidly Captain Ada Smith's War Cry report 7th April 1883 reads; `Night after night sinners are coming to the cross and finding the Saviour, who is able and willing to take all their sins away. On Good Friday the Harwich Corps, with their Captain and Lieutenant were with us.

Four hundred sat down to tea in the afternoon, after which we had a great Salvation Meeting. The place was packed, and hundreds were turned away. Sinners saved at every meeting. At Sunday Knee-drill we began with four souls at the Master's feet. One had come seventeen miles to get Salvation. We closed the day with shouts of Hallelujahs for what God had done for us. Nineteen more having, farewelled to sin and the devil, making forty one for the week'

Secretary Pittock, The War Cry 28th April 1883 reported: `God is blessing us in a wonderful manner. On Sunday there were about eighty five soldiers at Knee-drill. God was in our midst. At ten o'clock we met for a march to Mistley, and began firing away in our favourite position in the midst of six public houses. We were back again at our hall by eleven, and had a good time inside. In the afternoon many testified to the power of Jesus to save sinners. The hall was crowded at night and many could not get in. We all felt the power of God; conviction laid hold of the people, and at the invitation of the Captain fifteen volunteered for Jesus. We were greatly blessed at the Holiness Meeting on Friday evening; four came out for cleansing. A brother whose countenance was beaming with joy, said he came six miles to obtain the blessing, and, praise the Lord, he got it. We are thankful to God for what He is doing for us here, and we mean to fight on in His name. The publicans do not like us, because they are losing some of their best customers. By the help of God we are determined to win the town and surrounding villages for Christ'

It seems that they meant it for Sister F. Sorrel reporting in The War Cry 16th May 1883 writes: `On Wednesday our Captain, with about thirty soldiers made an attack on the village of BRADFIELD. As we marched and sang through the place the people came out of their houses and followed us to the field of battle, where were mounted a wagon drawn inside a thatched shed. After some singing and praying we had sharp shooting by eighteen or twenty of the Soldiers upon the enemy who numbered about 300. The fire soon began to take effect upon those who were on the other side of the hedge where the devil was busy among some young men. While they fried to hinder us by shouting; we prayed that they might be on the right side of the hedge at last. Despite the devil's efforts we had a good time, and many of our hearers were wounded. An invitation was given for any who was seeking Salvation to get in the wagon, and three young people accepted the invitation and believing, kneeling in the wagon found Jesus'.

It would appear to have been a busy life in The Salvation Army's first year in Manningtree. The War Cry May 26th 1883 carries this report from Captain Ada Smith. 'On Whit-Sunday, we had a glorious time commencing at 7 o'clock with ninety five soldiers at Knee-drill. Cadet Percy and Jacks the singer of Harwich, was with us. Our Holiness Meeting was time of great power, three coming out for pardon. The Hall was packed in the afternoon and evening, some of the country people coming miles to hear about Harwich who was with us. Our Holiness Meeting was time of great power, three coming out for pardon. The Hall was packed in the afternoon and evening, some of the country people coming miles to hear about Jesus who is able and willing to save them from their sins. Six young men came from Raydon, a village about eight miles off, to obtain this great Salvation, and glory to God, they got it to the joy of their hearts, making a total of eleven souls for the day. We had meetings all day on Whit-Monday. It was indeed cheering to all God's people to see the happy smiling faces of the soldiers and to hear their testimony of the power of Jesus to save sinners. One brother said he was three sheets in the wind last Whit- Monday, but, thank the Lord, he is saved now, and never spent such a happy holiday before. We finished with three souls in the Fountain, and went home rejoicing and praising the Lord for what He is doing for us here'.

However not all was plain sailing, for Rose Woolard in 'The Story of my Life' records, 'in Manningtree the "skeleton" forces, over two hundred strong, met on special occasions to oppose our open-air work, and many blows were aimed at the Salvationists as they passed through the streets... ' The War Cry 25th August 1883 reports, 'Attacking our Colours with a Scythe' `Lieutenant Alice Hodges writes — "This week has been a blessed week. On Monday we had a tea, and at night a Hosanna Meeting. We can truly say that the Lord has been with us. While we were out in the Open Air one man tried to cut the colours with his scythe, but God gave us the victory. Though it is very rough, God is with us, and we mean to tell the perishing world how Salvation may be found. We mean victory or death at this Corps, God helping us. Please pray for us, as we need your prayers very much'.

Again, The War Cry 12th September 1883, 'This little Corps, though very young, has done wonders for their Lord, and though fighting against heavy odds, the cruelty of the roughs being such that they Think nothing of Insulting and Striking a Poor Little Woman, yet many souls have been captured from the clutches of the devil, and are to-day wearing our uniform, and fighting in the ranks of The Salvation Army to win Manningtree over to the side of right'.

The Essex Standard, West Suffolk Gazette, and Eastern Counties Advertiser for the 26th September 1883 issue, records; 'Assaulting A Salvationist At Manningtree "Charles Hawkins, a sugar boiler, was summonsed for assaulting Philip Wagstaff, a coal porter, at Manningtree, on the 18th Sept — Mr. Asher Prior appeared for the complainant, who is a "Sergeant" in the Manningtree Corps of the Salvation Army. — Defendant pleaded guilty. — It appeared from the complainants statement that on the evening in question he had been marching around the streets with one of the army processions, and they were returning to their hall, when the defendant and some other young men who were in front of them, leaned back upon the front rank of the army to impede their progress. Defendant said to the young man in the front rank, named Goodchild, and who was endeavouring to march on. "1: fyou strike me I'll knock you down" and then he suddenly went round from the front rank to the second rank, in which the complainant was struck a violent blow on the mouth, and two more violent blows on the temple. Complainant said, "If you think that will pay, serve the other side the same" and defendant then hit him another blow on the temple. As a result of the blows, complainant was led bleeding and in a fainting condition to the Hall, where he fainted away, and eventually had to be removed to a coffee-house nearby, where he remained unconscious for some time. Complainant was unable to work next day, and still felt the effects of the blows. He gave defendant no provocation, - Mr Prior said he had three witnesses, but as defendant had pleaded guilty he should not call them. — The Magistrates said as there was a cross-summons issued by defendant, they would hear that before giving their decision.

Wagstaff was then charged with assaulting Hawkins on the occasion in question. — Hawkins alleged that as he and others were walking quietly in front of the Army, Wagstaff struck him on the nose and made it bleed, and then he struck him back. Wagstaff struck the first blow. — A witness was called in support of this, but it was denied by Wagstaff and his witnesses.

Eventually the magistrates decided to dismiss the cross-summons, remitting the costs, and for the assault upon Wagstaff they fined Hawkins 5s and 13s costs.

In November 1883 there was a change of command, The War Cry 3rd November 1883 reports: EASTERN DIVISION MANNINGTREE. 'In this small town there is a band of real Death-andGlory boys. On Thursday night Major Blandy, Captain Nicol, A.D.C. and Bandmaster Appleby went to welcome the new officers, Captain Jackson and Lieutenant Parry, who have taken up the work in a proper spirit. Two hundred sat down to tea. Four hundred assembled in the evening to take part in the celebration, and although A HOWLING MOB outside, and paid agents of the devil inside endeavoured to interrupt the joy and enthusiasm of the Soldiers, it was all to no avail. God kept giving, we kept receiving, and altogether a splendid impression was made. The Soldiers were wonderfully blessed'.

It would appear that nothing else appeared in the War Cry until the first Anniversary in the town. The War Cry March 1884 reports, Manningtree's First Anniversary. Do the Salvation Army Converts Stand? No! They March Forward. 'Major Blandy, his trumpeter, Captain and Mrs Weedon, Captain Parkins and Lieutenant Bell, along with Uncle Josh, laid siege to Manningtree on Saturday, with the object of celebrating the first battle fought there. Notwithstanding twelve months real war with rough treatment in the open air, persecutions, ridicule, and almost every conceivable vice, a great and powerful work has been accomplished Three hundred have professed Salvation, amongst them being men and women who seldom attended any place of worship. Young men, who habitually frequented the public houses for amusement and pleasure, and also a considerable number who were brought up under a preached Gospel, but who were totally blind as to the regeneration of their souls. To God be all the praise. But we may ask —

Is the interest sustained? — Crowded meetings is the reply.
Is the soul saving progressing? — Five souls on Sunday. Splendid cases.
How long will it last? — Judge from the "pills" below.
Do the converts stand? — No, they march forward.

Without going into particulars, I may say to use the Major's words, "The meetings on Sunday were glorious! " Being present at the Monday's meetings, I am able to affirm the same. Of course, as usual, the paid dupes of the brewers were at work, and desperate efforts were made on the life of Major Blandy. This is no exaggerated statement. God was his Great Deliverer, however.

In the evening a great demonstration over the wonderful twelve months' victories took place. As the outcome we prescribe the following.

Pill for his Satanic Majesty to Swallow.
I. Twelve months ago could not read nor write. Served me right; I had no business to serve the devil so long. I'm saved now, and going ahead"
2. "I never scarcely crossed a church or chapel door till The Salvation Army came here. I was saved twelve months ago, and have never missed a Knee Drill"

3. "Saved twelve months ago, and better still saved now!" (A volley)
4. Twelve months yesterday since I gave God my heart"
5. "Up against that pillar (pointing) twelve months ago I surrendered to Jesus"
6. "Next week I'll be a twelve months old soldier. I'm determined to endure to the end"

Half-past Twelve!
A. M. Nicol, A.D.C. to Major Blandy'

This final report looks like a case of the Army showing its mettle. The Essex Standard, West Suffolk Gazette, and Eastern Counties Advertiser 1St March 1884 carries this report, of an incident which The War Cry may have overlooked.

THE SALVATION ARMY AT MANNINGTREE Apprehension of Major Blandy for Alleged Assault.

`During the sitting of the Bench, a man named Robert Parker of Lawford who had been fined on one or two occasions for interfering with The Salvation Army at Manningtree, appeared in court covered with blood and with severe wounds on his head, face, and hands, and applied for a summons for an assault against "Major" Blandy, the chief officer of the Salvation Army for the Eastern Counties.

Parker, who was perfectly sober, stated in reply to enquiries that he had been in court all the morning, and at the adjournment he went home to dinner, and on his way when walking in the street, a procession of the Salvation Army came up, and Major Blandy knocked him about with his cornet, inflicting the injuries the Bench now saw. The Magistrates considered the assault was a serious one, and intimated their intention to issue a warrant for Major Blandy's apprehension at once. Parker said he should prefer a summons, as he could then have his witnesses in attendance.

The Bench, however, issued a warrant, and a constable was dispatched to the Corn Exchange, where the Army where holding some anniversary meeting, and the "Major" was arrested and brought to the police court. On the charge being read over to him, the defendant pleaded not guilty. Parker said his witnesses were not in attendance, but he could have them if the magistrates would adjourn the case.

The CHAIRMAN. "I think we had had better hear what complainant has to say"

Parker being sworn, stated that he had been in the court all the morning and was going home to dinner and-was walking along the streets as the Army came through. Hw was walking in the middle of the street-he did not know whether one of the Army touched him or not; but Major Blandy said, "He's not worth talking to anymore than the dogs in the streets; whereupon he (complainant) asked him, "Ain't I worth as much as you?" Defendant then struck him with his cornet on the top of the head and cut it open, and he also cut his eye and hand.

Mr. NUNN. Had you in any way raised your hand?

Parker. No I never touched any one of them, and never raised my hand. I have been here several times and they have got their knife into me — they would like to get rid of me, but they can't. If you adjourn the case I can have plenty of witnesses.
Defendant. I should like to ask you if you did not at the cross roads (Market Cross) rush as hard as you could against the man next to me — the bandmaster?

Parker. No

The Bench then suggested that Parker's witnesses might be sent for if he named them.

Parker said he did not know them all, but he named Mr Ernest Alston, Mr Dawson, and Mr Edwards.

Defendant said it was a most aggravated affair, and he should also like an adjournment. The CHAIRMAN. A very serious offence has been committed.

Defendant. Yes, I think it ought to be thoroughly investigated here at once. This man met us and came at us twice.

Eventually the magistrates decided to adjourn the case for a week.

Defendant applied for bail, and the Magistrates agreed to accept his own recognisance in the sum of £20 and one surety of £10. Mr Joseph Pittock became surety and the defendant was liberated.

Korea Centenary by Michael Rank

London isn’t exactly full of reminders of Korea, so I was surprised to discover in Abney Park Cemetery, Stoke Newington, a newly placed plaque in memory of the man who brought the Salvation Army to Korea.

The black marble plaque describes in English and Korean how “With Marching Orders from [Salvation Army founder] William Booth in hand, the then Colonel Robert Hoggard arrived on the Korean peninsular [sic] on 1st October 1908 to commence The Salvation Army … He waved the Blood and Fire Flag throughout the land of Korea as Territorial Commander of The Salvation Army from 1908 to 1916, by which time some 87 officers had been trained; 1,201 Salvationists sworn-in; 3,500 copies of The War Cry had been published; and 78 Corps opened…”.

As well as the plaque, which was erected on October 1 to mark the 100th anniversary of the Salvation Army in Korea, Hoggard’s grave has also been renovated. Robert Hoggard (1861-1935) shares the grave with his wife Annie (1862-1941) and another Salvationist couple, W.B. and Mary Palmer, who served with the Hoggards in Korea from 1913 to 1920.

The Hoggards and Mrs Palmer were “promoted to glory” when they died, while W.B. was “promoted to higher service”. I can’t help wondering why the difference, especially as Mr and Mrs Palmer were both Lieut-Commissioners…

Ann Stewart of the Salvation Army press office has kindly provided me with the order of service from Hoggard’s funeral (below left), which tells how in his early teens he “spent much of his leisure time dancing and singing in public-houses along the waterways” in his native Yorkshire. But “At the age of sixteen, in 1877, young Bob gave his heart to God at the Penitent Form. He at once became an aggressive, fighting Salvationist…”

He married Annie Johns in 1886, and after serving around Britain and Ireland the Hoggards “set out joyously to pioneer the work in Korea, where they were successful in raising the first forces of an Army fighting for Christ under our Flag from among a poor, suffering people, nurtured in darkest superstition.”

“The Salvation Army in Korea” by Peter H. Chang (Seoul, 2007) tells how the Hoggards travelled the back roads of Korea on the back of a pony, staying in the homes of local people as there were few inns.

“We walked from place to place, holding two or three meetings a day – ‘by the wayside’ or in any place available – to proclaim simple gospel truths and try to bring people to an immediate decision for Christ,” Hoggard is quoted as saying. “Both Hoggard and his indefatigable wife, itinerated constantly. Mrs. Hoggard frequently struck out on her own with a missionary assistant and a translator,” the book adds.

“It is amazing that Hoggard could do so much, not only in bringing souls to the Lord but in teaching them Army songs, publishing the War Cry, commencing the Officer Training College to produce Officers locally in Korea and so on. He did not neglect to translate the Army literature for these comrades to read and understand. He formed a brass band: with the missionaries in the beginning, then with the Korean folks…”

After returning from Korea Hoggard went on to serve as Territorial Commander in Scotland, South Africa, New Zealand and Canada West, and later as an International Travelling Commissioner “he helped and encouraged The Army’s forces in yet other lands.”

Commissioner and Mrs Hoggard retired from active service in 1932, and their son, Brigadier Robert Hoggard, followed in his parents’ footsteps. The Hoggards were eminently successful in their endeavors in Korea, and there are now more than 40,000 senior soldiers (full Salvation Army members) in South Korea – more than in the UK and Ireland and double the number in the whole of Australia. It is also building a remarkably glitzy looking new headquarters in Seoul. Surprisingly, the Salvation Army has also managed to become involved in North Korea recently and became a recognised NGO there in September 2007.

Here are more details, from the Salvation Army’s official website:

The way into the north was smoothed over with liberal use of yoghurt – a yoghurt processing plant put in place in the summer of 2004 to find a use for the region’s plentiful supply of goats’ milk was the first Salvation Army work in North Korea since the Korean war.

One of the projects now in progress is the planting of 12,000 chestnut trees in the Go-sung-goon area of Kangwon Province in North Korea. About 80 per cent of North Korea used to be forest but in the past 20 years, with economic and fuel crises, trees were claimed for energy and so great swathes of forest were lost.

Chestnut trees are easy to come by in the south and will help recover forest areas as well as providing another source of food. The harvesting of chestnut trees takes around five years following planting.

Assistance is also being provided for the Wah-woo-doh Hospital facility in Nampo, a city which was formerly home to a Salvation Army corps. Some 250 to 330 patients visit this centre each day but, of the 24 departments including in-patients and paediatrics, only 11 are actually operating. The building itself is 60 years old and shows its age. The sanitary facilities are poor, beyond description. Supplies are meagre. Now, thanks to the support of The Salvation Army, Wah-woo-doh Hospital is undergoing renovation and refurbishment and the Salvationists of South Korea are able to give a practical demonstration of their love and compassion for their neighbours in the north.

If the first 100 years of Salvation Army work in Korea has been a case of success against the odds, it is hoped that the next 100 years will see growth and harmony between Salvationists in the south and potential Salvationists in the north.

Incidentally Abney Park Cemetery, which is now disused and overgrown and more than slightly spooky, has strong links with the Salvation Army, as founder William Booth and his wife Catherine and his son and successor Bramwell are also buried there. Hoggard’s grave is near the Newington Church Street entrance, follow the right hand path and it’s maybe 50 metres on the left. The Booths’ graves are nearby.

There is also a 656-page biography of Hoggard in Korean.

With many thanks to Territorial Commander Chun Kwang-pyo and to senior press officer Ann C. Stewart in London for their assistance.

(Editor’s note: I am grateful for permission to reprint this article which was originally published on London Korean Links (http://londonkoreanlinks.net/), a website devoted to Korean culture in London and other links between Korea and the UK. Michael Rank is a London-based freelance journalist specialising in China and the Korean peninsula, and his articles can be found in newspapers such as The Guardian and The Asia Times Online).